Social Media and its Effects on Relationships and Self-Esteem

Social media has become an integral part of everyday life for large numbers of young people. Ofcom stated in 2018 that 70% of 12–15 year olds have a social media profile. In 2015, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development reported that 94.8% of 15 year olds in the UK used social media sites before or after school.

According to a Sky News article on why social media can be damaging for young people, social media addiction is thought to affect around 5% of young people and it is said to be more addictive than cigarettes and alcohol.

Social media offers many benefits for young people and society in general, such as providing:

  • a way to connect with friends and family over long distances;
  • a route to learning and developing skills;
  • an outlet for creativity and activism; and
  • opportunities for job searches.

However, it can also have a negative impact on young people’s health and well-being, for example by causing increased levels of anxiety and depression. See the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee report on the impact of social media and screen-use on young people’s health for more information.

Most social media sites a have a minimum age restriction of 13, but we know that children and young people do not always follow this. In May 2018, WhatsApp increased its minimum age for users in the EU from 13 to 16 years old. Social media sites set these limits as they recognise that some content may not be suitable for younger age groups.

When using social media, young people should understand:

  • the risks associated with using it;
  • the importance of reading the terms of service of the sites they are using;
  • how to use appropriate privacy settings;
  • the importance of having a strong password;
  • the risks of sharing personal information on social media sites;
  • how to recognise and resist the pressures placed on them to share inappropriate images of themselves or others;
  • the possible consequences, including legal ramifications, of sexting;
  • that once they have posted and shared something, they have lost control over where it goes and what happens to it; and
  • that it is wrong to cyberbully and post content which can harm other people or lower their self-esteem.

If something does go wrong with social media and young people find themselves as victims of cyberbullying or other forms of online harassment, they should know what to do or who to talk to for help. The UK Safer Internet Centre’s Professionals Online Safety Helpline offers advice on online safety issues like grooming, cyberbullying and online reputation, and can be useful for anyone that works with children and young people.

Useful Links

Here are some links that we think are particularly useful for this topic:

Post Primary Social Media Links108 KB - uploaded 01-04-2019

Childnet International – Digital ResilienceAimed at pupils aged 11–14, this lesson plan covers topics like the impact of positive and negative online experiences - childnet.com

Childnet International – Let’s Fight it TogetherThis film for 11–15 year olds shows how cyberbullying can happen, its impact and what can be done to respond to it - childnet.com

NSPCC Learning – Making Sense of Relationships Key Stage 3 Lesson Plan 4: Inappropriate Sexualised BehaviourThis lesson plan explores sexual bullying (including through social media) and can help pupils manage, resist or challenge it - learning.nspcc.org.uk

West Mercia Police – Advice on cyberbullying and online harassmentThe leaflets on this page include advice for young people and adults on how to deal with cyberbullying and online harassment - westmercia.police.uk